Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Search for:. Category: New Covenant Thinking Tags: covenant theology , dispensational theology , law , new covenant theology. Description Additional information Reviews 0 Description This is the book that has helped so many people to see the weaknesses of Covenant Theology and Dispensational Theology. Additional information Author John G. Some have speculated that the test given to Abraham centered primarily on renouncing such pagan conceptions of God.
Earlier he had argued with God regarding the destruction of Sodom. So why didn't he argue to save his own son?
Might this have been Abraham's test, namely, that God wanted Abraham to argue and to challenge the command to perform child sacrifice? Or why didn't he ask, "Why do you taunt me by giving me a son in my old age only to have him taken away? Indeed, how could Abraham have been in his right mind during this test?
As Soren Kierkegaard reminds us in his book Fear and Trembling, this is yirat Elohim - the fear of God - taken to point of sheer madness. And he cut the wood for the burnt offering and arose and went to the place of which God had told him" Gen.
Peter in his famous sermon on the day of Pentecost connects the Davidic Covenant 2 Sam. The same things simply get new names. It is hard to imagine Isaac's pathos during this exchange. We should never substitute theological terms for Biblical terms, and we should not load Biblical words with theological meaning, unless that meaning can be clearly established by other texts of Scripture. One wishes that Hodge would have consistently applied his own statements to his theology of infant baptism.
Instead of arguing with God about the rightness of the request, Abraham immediately began preparing for the sacrifice. He did not question God's instructions, nor, as we know from New Testament Scripture, did he doubt that God would be able to fulfill His promise that Isaac would be the heir of a multitude of people.
Abraham "saddled his donkey," indicating that he took personal responsibility for his mission. The midrash states that the two young men were Ishmael and Eliezer, respectively. Abraham cut the wood for the burnt offering ahead of time, though this is left unexplained in the text of the Torah a midrash states that it was to ensure that the wood was "kosher," that is, worm-free. Another possibility is that the wood was considered sacred to Abraham, perhaps cut from the terebinth tree he had earlier planted at Beersheba. The Miracle of the Test There are countless commentaries written about the Akedah, with various theories about what it all means or why the test was administered.
Some of the sages link "after these things" Gen.
God was angry at Abraham for making this covenant since He had promised to give all the land of Canaan to his descendants. Now Abraham's children would be unable to conquer the land until Abimelech's grandson would die. In effect, Abraham's decision to covenant with the Philistines resulted in the exile to Egypt, and the test of the Akedah was meant to refine Abraham's faith and obedience A midrash states that after Isaac had become a wealthy man, his older brother Ishmael visited him and taunted him regarding the virtue of circumcision.
I willingly submitted to this painful operation in obedience to my father and to God. But you, on the other hand, were a mere baby, before you had the intelligence to protest. He would one day test Abraham with just such a command Another midrash quoting from Sanhedrin 89b says that the sacrifice of Isaac was similar to God's test of the prophet Job. One day the angels came to minister before God and Satan was among them. And the LORD said to Satan, "Have you considered my servant Abraham, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, who fears God and turns away from evil?
He had no sons for a long time and he built altars to please you, but after his request for a child was granted, he has long forgotten you. He sacrificed many cattle for a feast for Isaac, but he did not offer you a gift of thanks. Now many years have passed since then and he has yet to offer you a single sacrifice! That is what the words, "After these things God tested Abraham" means: after Satan's words of challenge were uttered, God asked Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac. Rashi suggests that God prefaced the test with the word "please" i. Immediately after Abraham agreed to fulfill God's will, Satan began scheming of ways to defeat him.
He placed numerous obstacles in Abraham's way to prevent him from fulfilling God's request, such as causing a surging river to appear directly on the path. He whispered into Isaac's ears that Abraham had gone insane. He tried to make Abraham question whether he had actually heard the voice of God. He disguised himself as an old man to Abraham who insinuated that Abraham had listened to a devil rather than God.
Satan later disguised himself as a distressed Isaac and appeared to torment Sarah, hoping that she would somehow intervene and divert Abraham's mission. Throughout the journey to Moriah, Satan tried his best to dissuade Abraham, but God gave him grace to prevail for more on this, see the " Midrash of the White Ram ".
Other commentators speculate as to whether there was an "Ishmael connection" with the Akedah. According to Rashi, the sacrifice of Isaac was middah keneged middah "like for like" justice applied to Abraham's unjust eviction of Hagar and his firstborn son. After all, despite his wealth and power, Abraham had sent them away to a certain death in the desert Indeed, Isaac later seemed to understand this, and many of his spiritual encounters with God occurred at Beer-lehai-roi, the place where Ishmael was first named - and later abandoned.
I should add that Abraham's test was also Sarah's test. Abraham realized he would have to gain Sarah's assent to let Isaac go off to Moriah, so he convinced her that sending Isaac to Shem's school would be the best thing for him. Sarah was apprehensive and clothed her son with special garments. She followed the men as far as Hebron, where Abraham finally told her to turn back. It is a provocative thought that Sarah - not Isaac - was the real victim of the Akedah.
She, not Isaac, is the one who died, after all. Jewish tradition has associated the cries of Sarah with the blasts of the shofar during Rosh Hashanah.
The broken notes of the shofar are thought to recall her crying for her son for more on this, see " The Akedah of Sarah ". Many commentators link the idea of a test i. Since God already knows the outcome of the test, its purpose is to "raise up" the righteous by lifting them up to a new spiritual level. In other words, the test is for the individual's benefit - certainly not to impart any new information to God.
Abraham's Four Seeds is a biblical examination of the presuppositions of Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism. Pastor, evangelist, and author John G. Abrahams Four Seeds I finished reading “Abraham's Four Seeds: A Biblical Examination of the Presuppositions of Covenant Theology and.
The sages note that God tests someone to enable him or her to become aware of their own capabilities or limitations. Testing is therefore inherently soul-building. In addition, God tests people in order to demonstrate their capabilities to others. In the case of Abraham, the test of the Akedah functioned as a "banner" of his righteousness and faithful obedience. He is rightly regarded as the "father of faith" to all who believe Rom.
The midrash says that God deliberately prolonged the journey so that the nations should not later claim, "Abraham only sacrificed his son because he was taken by surprise when God gave him the command. No man would ever agree to an order to slaughter his own son, provided he were given ample time for reflection. Nonetheless Abraham and Isaac pressed on and traveled together. On the third day, Abraham saw a mountain bathed in a light that extended from earth to heaven, with the Shekhinah Glory resting above it.
He then asked Isaac, "What do you see? Abraham then told his two servants, "Stay here with the donkey; I and the boy will go over there and worship and we will return to you" Gen. According to midrash, since the two servants could not see the Shekhinah on the mountain, Abraham left them with the donkey. Then the two servants began to quarrel. Ishmael said that after Isaac's sacrifice he would be heir, whereas Eliezer said that he would be the heir. A heavenly voice finally said, "Neither of you will be heir, for in Isaac shall the Seed come.
Rashi states this was a prophecy of Isaac's resurrection, though other sages say that it meant that Abraham would return with his ashes. The New Testament comments that this was evidence that Abraham believed that God would resurrect Isaac from the dead Heb.
Abraham believed that - despite the coming sacrifice of his son - both of them would return. And he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So they went both of them together" Gen. Isaac carried the wood and Abraham carried the fire and knife.
According to Jewish tradition, Isaac was a 37 year old man who suspected that he was indeed going to be offered up as a sacrifice Seder Olam Rabbah. Nevertheless, he did not flee from his father but continued to trust in him They ascended the mountain together But Isaac needed to make sure of what was really happening. He needed to understand what was being asked of him.
This is the first word of dialog recorded over the three day journey It is hard to imagine Isaac's pathos during this exchange. The grammar of the dialog is somewhat odd. Why does the Torah say that Isaac said to his father Abraham? You can almost hear Isaac's faltering words to his father: "he said Abraham replied, "God will provide for himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son.
Notice that the Hebrew could be read: "God will provide the lamb for the burnt offering -- my son! According to midrash, upon hearing this, Isaac put his face between his hands and wept. When Abraham heard this, he wept also. But Isaac controlled himself and sought to comfort his father: "Do not feel distressed, my father. Fulfill your Creator's will through me! May my blood be an atonement for the future Jewish people" Bereshit Rabbah. The Torah then repeats the phrase, "and they both walked on together," indicating that Isaac had accepted his sacrificial death. Isaac had yielded his strength in perfect surrender and trust to his father, while Abraham held his beloved son's hand, afraid that he might lose courage and run away.
Love's Great Sacrifice Here we are reaching the climax of the narrative. Abraham built the altar on Moriah and "arranged the wood in order. It was rebuilt by Noah but later destroyed by Nimrod after the Dispersion of Babel.