Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Systems (Mechanics and Hydraulics)

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However, they were a favorite in the aforementioned competition trials in which essentially wide-open throttle operation was prevalent. Constant-flow injection systems continue to be used at the highest levels of drag racing, where full-throttle, high-RPM performance is key. In , one of the first Japanese designed cars to use mechanical fuel injection was the Daihatsu Compagno.

Another mechanical system, made by Bosch called Jetronic , but injecting the fuel into the port above the intake valve, was used by several European car makers, particularly Porsche from until in the production range and until on the Carrera 3. Porsche continued using this system on its racing cars into the late seventies and early eighties. Porsche racing variants such as the RSR 2. This was designed to meet the U.

Because mechanical injection systems have limited adjustments to develop the optimal amount of fuel into an engine that needs to operate under a variety of different conditions such as when starting, the engine's speed and load, atmospheric and engine temperatures, altitude, ignition timing, etc.

When working together, these electronic components can sense variations and the main system computes the appropriate amount of fuel needed to achieve better engine performance based on a stored "map" of optimal settings for given requirements. Most of the 35 vehicles originally so equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors.

The Electrojector patents were subsequently sold to Bosch. Lucas licensed the system for production in Jaguar cars, initially in D-Jetronic form before switching to L-Jetronic in on the XK6 engine. Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic system with the K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic systems for , though some cars such as the Volvo continued using D-Jetronic for the following several years.

In Rover fitted Lucas electronic fuel injection, which was based on some L-Jetronic patents, to the S-Series engine as used in the model. Nissan also installed multi-point fuel injection in the Nissan Y44 V8 engine in the Nissan President. In the s, the Isuzu Piazza and the Mitsubishi Starion added fuel injection as standard equipment, developed separately with both companies history of diesel powered engines.

The limited production Chevrolet Cosworth Vega was introduced in March using a Bendix EFI system with pulse-time manifold injection, four injector valves, an electronic control unit ECU , five independent sensors, and two fuel pumps.

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The EFI system was developed to satisfy stringent emission control requirements and market demands for a technologically advanced responsive vehicle. L-Jetronic first appeared on the Porsche , and uses a mechanical airflow meter L for Luft , German for "air" that produces a signal that is proportional to "air volume".

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This approach required additional sensors to measure the atmospheric pressure and temperature, to ultimately calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was widely adopted on European cars of that period, and a few Japanese models a short time later.

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The Motorola technology was installed in Ford North American products. In the s and s in the U.

During that time period, the vast majority of gasoline-fueled automobile and light truck engines did not use fuel injection. To comply with the new regulations, automobile manufacturers often made extensive and complex modifications to the engine carburetor s. While a simple carburetor system is cheaper to manufacture than a fuel injection system, the more complex carburetor systems installed on many engines in the s were much more costly than the earlier simple carburetors.

To more easily comply with emissions regulations, automobile manufacturers began installing fuel injection systems in more gasoline engines during the late s. Later closed-loop fuel injection systems improved the air—fuel mixture control with an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. Although not part of the injection control, a catalytic converter further reduces exhaust emissions. Fuel injection was phased in through the latter s and 80s at an accelerating rate, with the German, French, and U.

Since the early s, almost all gasoline passenger cars sold in first world markets are equipped with electronic fuel injection EFI. In Brazil, carburetors were entirely replaced by fuel injection during the s, with the first EFI equipped model built in the Volkswagen Gol [29]. The carburetor remains in use in developing countries where vehicle emissions are unregulated and diagnostic and repair infrastructure is sparse. Fuel injection is gradually replacing carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission regulations conceptually similar to those in force in Europe, Japan, Australia, and North America.

Many motorcycles still use carburetored engines, though all current high-performance designs have switched to EFI. The process of determining the necessary amount of fuel, and its delivery into the engine, are known as fuel metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter fuel, while nearly all modern systems use electronic metering. The primary factor used in determining the amount of fuel required by the engine is the amount by weight of air that is being taken in by the engine for use in combustion. Modern systems use a mass airflow sensor to send this information to the engine control unit.

Data representing the amount of power output desired by the driver sometimes known as "engine load" is also used by the engine control unit in calculating the amount of fuel required. A throttle position sensor TPS provides this information.

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Systems (Mechanics and Hydraulics)

Other engine sensors used in EFI systems include a coolant temperature sensor, a camshaft or crankshaft position sensor some systems get the position information from the distributor , and an oxygen sensor which is installed in the exhaust system so that it can be used to determine how well the fuel has been combusted, therefore allowing closed loop operation. Fuel is transported from the fuel tank via fuel lines and pressurised using fuel pump s. Maintaining the correct fuel pressure is done by a fuel pressure regulator. Often a fuel rail is used to divide the fuel supply into the required number of cylinders.

The fuel injector injects liquid fuel into the intake air the location of the fuel injector varies between systems.

Unlike carburetor-based systems, where the float chamber provides a reservoir, fuel injected systems depend on an uninterrupted flow of fuel. To avoid fuel starvation when subject to lateral G-forces , vehicles are often provided with an anti-surge vessel, usually integrated in the fuel tank , but sometimes as a separate, small anti-surge tank.

These examples specifically apply to a modern EFI gasoline engine. Parallels to fuels other than gasoline can be made, but only conceptually. The engine control unit is central to an EFI system. The ECU interprets data from input sensors to, among other tasks, calculate the appropriate amount of fuel to inject.

Start with the Fuel System Basics

When signaled by the engine control unit the fuel injector opens and sprays the pressurised fuel into the engine. The duration that the injector is open called the pulse width is proportional to the amount of fuel delivered. Depending on the system design, the timing of when injector opens is either relative each individual cylinder for a sequential fuel injection SFI system , or injectors for multiple cylinders may be signalled to open at the same time in a batch fire system.

The relative proportions of air and fuel vary according to the type of fuel used and the performance requirements i. See Air—fuel ratio , Stoichiometry , and Combustion. Single-point injection SPI uses a single injector at the throttle body the same location as was used by carburetors. Since the fuel passes through the intake runners like a carburetor system , it is called a "wet manifold system". The justification for single-point injection was low cost. Many of the carburetor's supporting components - such as the air cleaner, intake manifold, and fuel line routing - could be reused.

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This postponed the redesign and tooling costs of these components. Single-point injection was used extensively on American-made passenger cars and light trucks during , and in some European cars in the early and mids. In a continuous injection system, fuel flows at all times from the fuel injectors, but at a variable flow rate. This is in contrast to most fuel injection systems, which provide fuel during short pulses of varying duration, with a constant rate of flow during each pulse.

Continuous injection systems can be multi-point or single-point, but not direct. The most common automotive continuous injection system is Bosch's K-Jetronic , introduced in Chrysler used a continuous fuel injection system on the Imperial.

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In piston aircraft engines, continuous-flow fuel injection is the most common type. In contrast to automotive fuel injection systems, aircraft continuous flow fuel injection is all mechanical , requiring no electricity to operate. The Bendix system is a direct descendant of the pressure carburetor. However, instead of having a discharge valve in the barrel, it uses a flow divider mounted on top of the engine, which controls the discharge rate and evenly distributes the fuel to stainless steel injection lines to the intake ports of each cylinder.

The TCM system is even more simple. It has no venturi, no pressure chambers, no diaphragms, and no discharge valve. The control unit is fed by a constant-pressure fuel pump. The control unit simply uses a butterfly valve for the air, which is linked by a mechanical linkage to a rotary valve for the fuel. Inside the control unit is another restriction, which controls the fuel mixture. The pressure drop across the restrictions in the control unit controls the amount of fuel flow, so that fuel flow is directly proportional to the pressure at the flow divider.

This vehicle still does NOT have any check engine lights and has had no service failures since in service with the Ensida Energy system.

Liquid propane gas is the most efficient fuel operating today. This means less vehicle maintenance and longer engine life. LPG vehicles produce fewer emissions by far than gasoline. Modern LPG conversions have little or no emissions during fueling. Specifically developed for racing, the version for the Alternative fuel market has endless possibility.

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