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Early Childhood Research Quarterly 6: — Genesee, Fred What do we know about bilingual education for majority language stu- dents? Genesee, Fred and Elena Nicoladis in press Bilingual first language acquisition. In: Erika Hoff and Marilyn Shatz eds. Paradis, Johanne in press Child second language acquisition. In Erika Hoff and Marilyn Shatz eds. Multilingualism and the family Multilingualism has been the norm throughout the ages in most of the world. Nonetheless the phenomenon is perhaps relatively speaking more recent in Western society. With the greater mobility of people and consequent cross-lin- guistic and cross-cultural relationships, an increasing number of children are growing up with early exposure to two languages in the family.
Indeed more than two languages may be in the linguistic repertoire of the family, rendering a case of family multilingualism cf. Quay Multilingualism has increas- ingly come in focus with, for example, studies emphasizing trilingualism and how it may differ from bilingualism cf. Hoffmann and Ytsma Nonethe- less, in the following I will use the term bilingualism to refer to the acquisition and use of two, or more, languages, similar to the general use in the literature.
I will, however, employ the term multilingualism when referring to specific cases involving more than two languages. In this chapter, I will address the issue of bilingualism and the family with a focus on the influence of the family environment on early bilingual language acquisition, in the framework of individual bilingualism — that is, in an environ- ment in which the minority language does not have community support. While Ch. If the parents choose to raise their children bilingually, this implies a positive at- titude towards bilingualism.
In the fol- lowing, I will first present the family as an important sociolinguistic environ- ment, specifically as a community of practice, and discuss the issue of language socialization in light of language choice patterns in the family. Thereafter, I will present and discuss various applied linguistic approaches to studying the bilin- gual family in a society in which the minority language does not have commu- nity support.
These approaches are illustrated through studies that have em- ployed survey data and in-depth interviews of bilingual families, those examining language ideology as a significant factor in bilingual acquisition, and finally interactional studies investigating parent-child conversations. These include relevant lit- erature and journals that publish work related to the topic of this chapter.
Fur- thermore, publications are presented that have as a goal to enlighten parents on the issue of bilingualism and to present ways to stimulate bilingualism in the family. The family is a vital social unit for acquiring language. Although the family is an integral part of society and as such should not be separated from it, the focus in this chapter will be on the family with the term family bilingualism used for analytical purposes to refer to individual bilingualism within the family Lanza In such a case, the one language is the majority language of the outside community while the other language is not spoken in the commu- nity.
A focus on the family will allow us to explore issues that foster bilingualism in cases in which there is no community support for the minority language s in contrast to cases of societal bilingualism, which comprises not only bilingual communities such as in Quebec but also immigrant contexts, typically charac- terized by closed networks. Examples of the type of families that will be the focus of this article include a family living in France in which the mother is Jap- anese and the father French, or a family living in Germany in which the father is bilingual in Catalan and Spanish while the mother speaks German.
The distinction drawn above between societal bilingualism and family bilin- gualism has often been referred to as a distinction between folk bilingualism and elitist bilingualism. Although the distinction is a real one, the notion of an elitist bilingualism truly undermines the fact that many parents face problems as they attempt to raise their children bilingually.
Many receive unfounded advice and lack the general support from any bilingual community, and hence abandon any attempts to establish individual bilingualism in the home. We may consider the family as a community of practice, a social unit that has its own norms for language use. This notion bears resemblance to other sociolinguistic concepts such as the speech community and social network and includes issues of language attitudes.
However, it captures the reality that even smaller groups can have their own ways of speaking, acting and believing. Moreover, it provides a focus on praxis that is a cornerstone for language so- cialization theory. The community of practice approach is part of a social theory of learning Lave and Wenger ; Wenger that addresses how individuals grad- ually become members of the community.
The family as a community of practice pro- vides us a focus on a particular setting for language socialization although lan- guage socialization occurs in a broader social context. Language socialization Various theories of socialization have perceived the child as either an active or passive participant in the process. Traditional theories of socialization empha- size the process by which children adapt to, and internalize, society.
The child is, from this perspective, perceived as something that needs to be molded and guided by society in order to become a fully-fledged member. As Corsaro notes, the term socialization has an individualistic and forward-looking connotation that is inescapable, the notion of training and preparing the indi- vidual child for the future. Constructivist and interpretive theoretical per- spectives in sociology have given rise to new ways of conceptualizing children James and Prout ; Corsaro ; James, Prout, and Jenks Corsaro proposes the term interpretive reproduction as a replacement for socialization.
His term incorporates the idea that children actively contribute to societal pres- ervation or reproduction as well as to societal change through interpretation. Despite the use of the term socialization, language socialization studies have held similar conceptions of the child as an active social agent cf. Schieffelin and Ochsa, b; Ochs and Schieffelin In this approach there is an emphasis on the dialogic nature of socialization that is in line with the new sociology of childhood.
However, before addressing various approaches to studying the bilingual family, we will first consider how language choice figures generally in cases of childhood bilin- gualism. Language choice patterns in the home In an attempt to explain variation in language acquisition among young bilin- gual children, scholars have given special attention to language use patterns in the home.
The language choice pattern that has received the most attention in family bilingualism is that of One Person — One Language cf. First discussed in the work of the linguist Ronjat , it is also referred to as the Grammont Formula after the linguist of the same name. Grammont advised Ronjat, who was French, and his wife, a German, to address their child Louis each in their native languages. It was held that separating the languages from infancy would help the child learn both languages without any effort or con- fusion.
This strategy figures in the typology of language choice patterns in the home set up by Romaine — Reviewing the field of early child- hood bilingualism and basing her typology on Harding and Riley , Ro- maine proposed six basic types of language choice patterns in the family that vary according to the native languages of the parents, the language s of the community, and the strategy the parents employ with the child. The six types are the following: 1. One Person — One Language 2.
Non-dominant Home Language without Community Support 4. Non-native Parents 6. Mixed Languages Certain types more easily render simultaneous bilingualism for example, the One Person — One Language strategy while other types in which the non-domi- nant language is spoken at home and the dominant language outside the home may render sequential bilingualism. And yet another type in which the child is exposed to two languages in the home and another later outside the home may render both simultaneous and sequential bilingualism e. We will return to this issue in 3.
Although case studies of early bilingualism, or the simultaneous acquisition of two languages, have domi- nated, some studies have taken a more comprehensive approach to mapping out important factors for fostering bilingualism through the use of surveys and in- terviews. The attitudes of the environment and the parents will play a role in language choice patterns. Although the children who were targeted were somewhat older 6—9 years of age than those usually studied regarding early bilingualism, the results provide insight into family bilingualism. The data come from over 18, surveys that were re- turned.
Some of the families were bilingual with Dutch outside the home, while many families were trilingual. Another significant variable was whether or not both parents used languages X and Y. Active trilingualism was associated with the use of both lan- guages in the family by the parents. Hence survey data can isolate important main variables contributing to active multilingualism. De Houwer , furthermore, notes that other potentially important factors are the relative frequencies with which the home languages are spoken as well as the interactional strategies parents use in communication with their children.
Over 1, written questionnaires were sent out to international families while the final sample to be analyzed to- taled Follow-up interviews were held with six of the families. More generally, the results in- dicated that the more the parents use the minority language and the less the mi- nority-language speaking parent uses the majority language to the child, the greater the likelihood the child will use the minority language to the parent who is the native speaker of that language.
In conclusion, Yamamoto points out that the prestige of the languages involved can play a role: English enjoys high status in Japan. Survey data as discussed in the above-mentioned studies can contribute to mapping out important factors involved in fostering bilingualism in the family. These factors may be investigated in more depth through follow-up studies. This was also the case in a study of mixed couples in France and Germany Varro Indeed societal ideology can play a role in bilingual acquisition, as well as the local ideologies of a community of practice such as a family.
The next section will examine the notion of language ideology. The issue of language ideology has gained prominence in recent years with the field of linguistic an- thropology. However, its core matter has been of interest for quite some time through the study of language attitudes, world views in language, and language planning, among others. Ideologies about language are of course not about language alone, rather they reflect issues of social and personal identity.
Language ideologies are manifested in linguistic practice itself, that is, in how people talk, their language choice. There is a multiplicity of language ideologies in various social orders, and indeed as Gal points out, ideas about lan- guage can also be contradictory. Various families may have different language ideologies.
Parental beliefs and attitudes about language and language learning play an important role in early bilingual development and are intrinsically tied with language use, as dis- cussed in De Houwer Parents may have positive or negative attitudes towards bilingualism, to- wards specific bilingual praxis such as code-switching, towards particular lan- guages, or even towards particular types of interactional strategies.
Such beliefs and attitudes shared by parents we may generally refer to as a local language ideology within the community of practice of the family. Moreover, they may in fact hold different ideologi- cal stances, which could potentially lead to conflict in language planning in the family, as discussed in Piller We may ask how such an ideology concerning bilingualism is formed. King and Fogle forthc.
They fo- cused on four recurrent themes in the media and popular literature, and indeed concerns of parents: language delay, language confusion, language learning ma- terials, and the connection between bilingualism and intelligence. Fur- thermore, a systematic review of popular literature published in the last five years was carried out.
What they discovered was that parental ideologies tended to coincide with the information and advice given in the media and popular lit- erature, including newspaper articles, parenting magazines, websites pertaining to bilingual parenting as well as popular parenting books. Moreover, there were significant mismatches between parental beliefs and the popular literature on the one hand, and the findings in empirical research on the other. Parental language ideologies are vital in that they are linked to language use patterns in the home.
The language ideologies of parents may be overtly expressed through metalinguistic comments; however, they may find covert ex- pression through language choice. Moreover, there may be a mismatch. Although claiming to use the One Person — One Language strategy, the parents in fact used both languages. Mapping out general parental ideology to- wards language acquisition and bilingualism is an important contribution of sur- vey questionnaires and interviews. However, the examination of how parents actually do talk to their children can only be accomplished through an inter- actional analysis of parent-child conversations.
Hence we move from more macro-oriented approaches to studying bilingual families to micro-approaches in the examination of factors involved in fostering early bilingualism. Interactional analysis: Parent-child conversations In his work on language maintenance and language shift in immigrant commu- nities, Fishman stresses the decisive role of the micro-level of face-to- face interaction and social life within the intimate family and local community.
A look at the micro-level of the community of practice in cases of family bilin- gualism can help us understand why some children establish bilingualism at a very early age while others do not. However, systematic analyses of bilingual conversations between caregiver and child have only emerged in recent years in the field. Indeed there is a paucity of studies in the field of bilin- gual first language acquisition that focus on conversational interaction in the family, compared to studies examining other aspects of bilingual development.
Many studies do not necessarily focus on this type of interaction, yet examples and relevant find- ings are often brought up in the discussion, and will be mentioned below.
This research was based on data from bilingual German-English families in Australia, including recordings of four children, aged 2;4 or 2;8 at the onset of the study, in naturally occurring inter- actions with their parents. The overall idea is that quality is more important than quantity in parent-child interaction.
These findings have been an important contribution to the study of language socialization in the bilingual family. Nonetheless a closer examination of methodological issues can highlight the implications of such findings. Hence it appears that the social construct of the mother and father in various cultures would have an impact on the results. However, it is clear that societal constructions of gender roles, and hence the role of the father and the mother, will also affect individual perform- ance.
Only those children in the study who acquired active command of German were in fact met with high-constraint insisting strategies such as unspecified clarification requests and requests for translation. Rather they were reported on glob- ally and linked to the assessment of whether or not the child was an active bi- lingual.
Mixing was defined as the use of mixed utterances as well as utterances in the other language than that used by the parent who claims using the One Person — One Language strategy of inter- action. An interpretive framework is presented for analyzing the discourse con- text of the young bilingual language mixing; the parental interactional strategies were assessed as to what extent they contributed to a context that was more or less monolingual or bilingual. The data upon which this study builds are conversational exchanges be- tween a two-year-old girl named Siri and her parents, a bilingual family in Nor- way in which the parents claimed to use the One Person — One Language strat- egy.
Siri mixed languages throughout the entire period of the study. A distinction, however, was made between grammatical mixing and lexical mixing.
Lanza , , Table 1 lists the discourse strategies that can serve to propose a context which is more or less monolingual or bilingual. These interactional strategies cover the parental reactions found in the data. Expressed Guess Strategy Ochs : Adult asks a yes-no question using the other language.
A Move On Strategy: the conversation merely continues. Adult Code-Switches. In discussions of discourse strategies, one is often led to think that there is con- scious calculation on the part of the interactant. Studies of conversational code- switching, a particular type of discourse strategy, however, have shown that even adult bilinguals may be unaware of what language they are actually using as they are so immersed in the interaction.
Discourse strategies may thus at times operate below the level of consciousness and playback techniques may even surprise the individual of his or her own language use. In so doing, the parent highlights his or her role of a monolingual or a bilingual. And thus we may see to what extent the parent socializes the child into language separation or code-switching. The strategies listed in Table 1 can be placed on a continuum, as done in Fig- ure 1, indicating their potential for making a bid for a monolingual or bilingual context once the child has opened negotiations for a bilingual context through mixing.
Strategy Switching Figure 1. Let us now turn to some examples of these parental strategies in other bilingual parent-child interactions. They live in Rome. In the following, Giulia addresses her German-speaking mother con- tinually in Italian until the last reply Taeschner G: Mami aple. G: Aufmachen? With an expressed guess the child can either confirm or disconfirm the guess. Hence this shifts the child even further along the language mode continuum towards the bilingual end of it.
C: do it again f M: noch mal?
In the final chapter —12 of this collection of 13 empirical studies of various as- pects of English language teaching in Turkey, Bayyurt, one of the editors of the volume, summarizes recent thinking on world Englishes and the teaching of English as an in- ternational language EIL. Oxford: Routledge. He has published a number of books and articles in the area of bilingualism and multiculturalism, language and cognition, media advertising discourse, and sociolinguistics, and has been consultant to several academic, administrative, and business organizations. Finally, they examine another intersection of markets, namely the incorporation of hip-hop into the language-learning domain. Home language policy of the second-generation Turkish families in the Netherlands. Now, to the outdated aspects of the text.