Their names appear in inscriptions written during the period described by the Bible and in most instances during or quite close to the lifetime of the person identified. Not a BAS Library member yet? Join the BAS Library today. When he reigned or flourished B. Ben-hadad, son of Hadadezer. Ben-hadad, son of Hazael. Shalmaneser V. Merodach-baladan II. Nebuchadnezzar II. Artaxerxes I Longimanus. Darius II Nothus.
Learn the fascinating insights gained from artifacts and ruins, like the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem, where the Gospel of John says Jesus miraculously restored the sight of the blind man, and the Tel Dan inscription—the first historical evidence of King David outside the Bible. See OROT , pp. Note: The name of this pharaoh can be spelled Sheshonq or Shoshenq. Sheshonq is also referred to in a fragment of his victory stele discovered at Megiddo containing his cartouche.
See Robert S. Lamon and Geoffrey M. Oriental Institute Publications no. Egyptian pharaohs had several names, including a throne name. A small Egyptian scarab containing his exact throne name, discovered as a surface find at Khirbat Hamra Ifdan, now documents his presence at or near that location. This site is located along the Wadi Fidan, in the region of Faynan in southern Jordan.
His army seems to have intentionally disrupted copper production, as is evident both at Khirbet en-Nahas and also at Khirbat Hamra Ifdan, where the scarab was discovered. As for the singularity of this name in this remote locale, it would have been notable to find any Egyptian scarab there, much less one containing the throne name of this conquering Pharaoh; this unique discovery admits no confusion with another person.
See Thomas E. See Raging Torrent , p. See also Raging Torrent , pp. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings — B. The index of Third , p. Mesha, king, r. Hadadezer, king, r. Ben-hadad, son of Hadadezer, r. The mistaken disqualification of this biblical identification in the Melqart stele in IBP , p. Hazael, king, r.
He is also referred to in 2 the Zakkur stele from near Aleppo, in what is now Syria, and in 3 bridle inscriptions, i. All are treated in IBP , pp. Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, king, r. Want more on Biblical figures? Omri, king, r. Because he founded a famous dynasty which ruled the northern kingdom of Israel, the Assyrians refer not only to him as a king of Israel ANET , pp. Ahab, king, r. There, referring to the battle of Qarqar B. Jehu, king, r. ANET , p. Kyle McCarter, Jr. Jeroboam II, king, r. Menahem, king, r. Pekah, king, r. The land of Bit-Humria.
Hoshea, king, r. Cowley, ed. David, king, r. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham, eds. Maxwell Miller. JSOT Supplement series, no. In the table on p. According to 2 Samuel , for his first seven years and six months as a monarch, he ruled only the southern kingdom of Judah. We have no inscription that refers to David as king over all Israel that is, the united kingdom as also stated in 2 Sam The Bible refers to him by the shortened form of his full name, Ahaz, rather than by the full form of his name, Jehoahaz, which the Assyrian inscription uses.
Because this king already stands clearly documented in an Assyrian inscription, documentation in another inscription is not necessary to confirm the existence of the biblical Ahaz, king of Judah. Hezekiah, king, r. During , a royal bulla of Hezekiah, king of Judah, was discovered in the renewed Ophel excavations of Eilat Mazar. Imperfections along the left edge of the impression in the clay contributed to a delay in correct reading of the bulla until late in Apparently unavailable as of August except for a rare library copy or two is Eilat Mazar, ed.
Manasseh, king, r. Also, Ashurbanipal r. Hinrichs, ], vol. The oldest part of Jerusalem, called the City of David, is the location where the Bible places all four men named in the bullae covered in the present endnotes 26 through Discovered at Babylon, they are dated from the tenth to the thirty-fifth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylonia and conqueror of Jerusalem.
Shelemiah, father of Jehucal the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah ; and Pashhur, father of Gedaliah the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah and See Raging Torrent , pp. Most notable is the Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series, Chronicle 1, i, lines 24— In those lines, year 2 of the Chronicle mentions his plundering the city of Samaria Raging Torrent , pp.
See below for the endnotes to the box at the top of p. Sargon II, king, r. Sennacherib, king, r. Bendt Alster Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, , pp. See also ABC , p. On various renderings of the neo-Assyrian name of the assassin, see RlA s. Esarhaddon, king, r. Nebuchadnezzar II, king, r. Nebo-sarsekim, chief official of Nebuchadnezzar II, fl. The time reference in Jeremiah is very close, to the year Since it is extremely unlikely that two individuals having precisely the same personal name would have been, in turn, the sole holders of precisely this unique position within a decade of each other, it is safe to assume that the inscription and the book of Jeremiah refer to the same person in different years of his time in office.
With an Appendix on the Nebu!
See ANET, pp. See ANET, p. Sack, Amel-Marduk: B. Belshazzar, son and co-regent of Nabonidus, fl. For larger context and implications in the biblical text, see OROT , pp.
See also COS , vol. On the setting, see OROT , pp. See David E. IV, p. Nathan Yadon of Houston, Texas, private correspondence, 8 September Artaxerxes I Longimanus, king, r. Darius II Nothus, king, r. In general, the persons listed in the box at the top of p. The first category includes those about whom we know so little that we cannot even approach a firm identification with anyone named in an inscription. This name almost certainly refers to a historical person, but variations of this name were common in the ancient Near East, and modern lack of information on the biblical Shalman makes it difficult to assign it to a particular historical situation or ruler, Assyrian or otherwise.
See Francis I. See Jacob M. The second category of excluded identifications comes from the distinction between inscriptions that are dug up after many centuries and texts that have been copied and recopied through the course of many centuries. The latter include the books of the Bible itself, as well as other writings, notably those of Flavius Josephus in the first century C.
See IBP , p. Raging Torrent , pp. Balaam son of Beor , fl. COS , vol. Many scholars assume or conclude that the Balaam and Beor of the inscription are the same as the biblical pair and belong to the same folk tradition, which is not necessarily historical. See P. Mykytiuk at first listed these two identifications under a strong classification in IBP , p.
Although it contains three identifying marks traits of both father and son, this inscription is dated to ca. Speaking with no particular reference to this inscription, some scholars, such as Frendo and Kofoed, argue that lengthy gaps between a particular writing and the things to which it refers are not automatically to be considered refutations of historical claims Anthony J.
There might easily have been intervening sources which transmitted the information from generation to generation but as centuries passed, were lost. Baalis, king of the Ammonites , r. The seal impression reveals only two marks traits of an individual, so it is not quite firm. See Larry G. This collection of articles written by authoritative scholars details some of the ways in which ancient Near Eastern civilizations have impressed themselves on Western culture. This bowl is now in the Brooklyn Museum. Despite thorough analyses of the Qainu bowl and its correspondences pointing to the biblical Geshem, there is at least one other viable candidate for identification with the biblical Geshem: Gashm or Jasm, son of Shahr, of Dedan.
On him, see Frederick V. Winnett and William L. Thus the existence of two viable candidates would seem to render the case for each not quite firm COS , vol. See CIIP , vol. Also, among the burial places inside that same tomb complex, lying broken into fragments was an inscribed, square stone plate that had been used to seal a burial. The date of the engraving itself does not help answer the question of this identification, because the stone was quarried no earlier than the second century B.
CIIP , Part 1, p. Nevertheless, it is still a reasonable identification, as supported by the following facts:. This suggestion may be pursued independently of whether the family was founded in Davidic times as 1 Chronicles 24 states. It seems that the authors fully expected that the names of the founders of these 24 priestly families would be recognized as such, presumably by Jewish readers. The assumption would have been that they were common knowledge. If one accepts that Israel relied on these particular priestly families to perform priestly duties for centuries, then such an expectation makes sense.
To accept the reasonableness of this identification is a way of acknowledging the continuity of Hebrew tradition, which certainly seems unquenchable. See the published dissertation, L. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, , p. The inscription is in Aramaic, which was the language spoken by Jews in first-century Palestine for day-to-day living. Therefore, the Israel Antiquities Authority at first considered it a potential forgery. Normally, if the person in the Bible and the person in the inscription have the same three identifying marks of an individual, and if all other factors are right, one can say the identification confirmation of the Biblical person in the inscription is virtually certain.
But not all other factors are right. A setting even in literature consists of time and place. Isaiah the prophet , fl. It was discovered in a narrow patch of land between the south side of the Temple mount and the north end of the City of David. The bulla, whose upper left portion is broken off, reveals only two marks traits of an individual in the Bible, not three, which would have made a virtually certain identification of a Biblical person.
No other letter makes any sense in that spot. The second mark of an individual is where he worked, as indicated by the place where the bulla was discovered. Although these facts may seem enough to make an identification of the prophet Isaiah, the case is not settled. On the last line of the bulla are the letters nby. These are the first three letters of the Hebrew word that means prophet, but they lack the final letter aleph to form that word.
It was either originally present but broke off, or else it was never present. These same three letters, nby, are also a complete Hebrew personal name. We know that, because this name was found on two authentic bullae made by one stone seal and discovered in a juglet at the city of Lachish. As a result, to identify Isaiah the son of nby, perhaps pronounced Novi , who apparently worked as an official in the palace, or possibly the Temple, is a perfectly good alternative to identifying Isaiah the prophet, son of Amoz. Therefore, a firm identification of Isaiah the prophet is not possible.
He remains a candidate.
Shebna, the overseer of the palace , fl. There are only two marks traits of an individual, and these do not include his complete name, so this identification, though tempting, is not quite firm. Hananiah and his father, Azzur, from Gibeon , fl. This seal reveals only two marks traits of an individual, the names of father and son, therefore the identification it provides can be no more than a reasonable hypothesis IBP , pp. Because the shapes of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet gradually changed over the centuries, using examples discovered at different stratigraphic levels of earth, we can now date ancient Hebrew inscriptions on the basis of paleography letter shapes and the direction and order of the strokes.
This seal was published during the 19th century in by Charles Clermont-Ganneau , when no one, neither scholars nor forgers, knew the correct shapes of Hebrew letters for the late seventh to early sixth centuries the time of Jeremiah. We now know that all the letter shapes in this seal are chronologically consistent with each other and are the appropriate letter shapes for late seventh—century to early sixth—century Hebrew script—the time of Jeremiah.
Because the letter shapes could not have been correctly forged, yet they turned out to be correct, it is safe to presume that this stone seal is genuine, even though its origin provenance is unknown. Normally, materials from the antiquities market are not to be trusted, because they have been bought, rather than excavated, and could be forged.
But the exception is inscriptions purchased during the 19th century that turn out to have what we now know are the correct letter shapes, all of which appropriate for the same century or part of a century IBP , p. Also, the letters are written in Hebrew script, which is discernibly different from the scripts of neighboring kingdoms. The only Hebrew kingdom still standing when this inscription was written was Judah. Because this seal is authentic and is from the kingdom of Judah during the time of Jeremiah, it matches the setting of the Hananiah, the son of Azzur in Jeremiah That is not enough for a firm identification, but it is enough for a reasonable hypothesis.
Gedaliah the governor, son of Ahikam , fl. It is safe to assume that as conquerors of Jerusalem in B. The palace overseer had great authority and knowledge of the inner workings of government at the highest level, sometimes serving as vice-regent for the king; see S. The palace overseer at the time of the Babylonian conquest, whose bulla we have, would be the most likely choice for governor, if they saw him as pro-Babylonian.
But, though we lack irrefutable evidence, Gedaliah the son of Ahikam is quite likely to have been palace overseer. As for his being perceived as pro-Babylonian, his father Ahikam had protected the prophet Jeremiah Jeremiah ; cf. See William F. Chavalas, ed. Pritchard, ed. Princeton, N. Cotton et al. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, eds.
Andrew Dearman, ed. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, This book is a revised Ph. Other dates follow traditional high biblical chronology, rather than the low chronology proposed by Israel Finkelstein. References Kenneth A. Wayne T. Winona Lake, Ind. III, part I, pp. III, part II, pp. This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on March 3, Lawrence Mykytiuk an associate professor of library science who specializes in history and Jewish studies at Purdue University, has confirmed a total of 53 persons in the Bible from the Old Testament.
What a wonderful addition to the world of Biblical documentation. Thank you so very much for making this information available online. May each of you be blessed richly for your contribution to the people of the world. This large, ostentatious seal, a carved blue stone 2 cm. Possible owners could even have included a preacher in the Temple who was a false prophet, as Hananiah was shown to be after his false prediction in the Temple in Jeremiah Because the shapes of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet gradually changed over the centuries, it is possible to give an approximate date to ancient Hebrew inscriptions on that basis.
This seal was published during the nineteenth century in by Charles Clermont-Ganneau , when no one, neither scholars nor forgers, knew the correct shapes of Hebrew letters for the late seventh to early sixth century the time of Jeremiah. Yet all the letter shapes are consistent with each other, being the appropriate shapes for late seventh-century to early sixth-century Hebrew script.
Therefore, on this evidence it is safe to presume that this stone seal is genuine, even though its origin provenance is unknown. But nineteenth-century inscriptions that turn out to have correct letter shapes that are all appropriate for the same century or part of a century are an exception. As for the setting of this seal, that is, the time and place, we have already settled on the late seventh to early sixth century, and it is clear that the letters are written in Hebrew script, as opposed to the distinctive scripts of neighboring kingdoms.
Since the northern kingdom of Israel was conquered in B. So far, so good. Now we need to compare the identifying marks of an individual in the inscription and in the Bible. The archaeological evidence is not quite enough to support a virtually certain identification, for the following reasons:. The seal does not reveal any connection with Gibeon, which is clear in Jeremiah 28, nor does it suggest anything about the seal owner being a prophet, which is also clear in that same chapter.
In other words, potential marks of an individual in the Bible that might have provided a third identifying mark of an individual—and would have made the case for a virtually certain identification—are not confirmed by the seal, leaving the total marks of an individual at 2, rather than 3. Lawrence, Thank you for a great update to a well-documented and thought out series of articles. If you have already considered this in another article, please forgive my not being aware of it. Thanks again. The purpose of the protocols is to avoid mistaken confirmations identifications and arrive at a solid, reliable list—not to produce as many confirmations as possible.
Setting low standards in order to get more confirmations ultimately results in simply listing flawed confirmations that have no value. I am aware that in Roman Catholic Bibles and Orthodox Bibles, the Old Testament has more books, and therefore more potential archaeological confirmations,. Because my focus has been on the Hebrew Bible, thus far I have not yet searched for such confirmations in those additional books, though I think there are probably some to be made there.
It appears in the first part of my book chapter, Lawrence J. These protocols were first established on pp. Some modifications to the protocols appear in my later article that is also freely available online at docs. Three of the persons in the Hebrew Bible whom you mentioned are indeed already identified In the table above: Esarhaddon is no. But when it is translated into English, we say AY-ven. The Hebrew name Ahab has been rendered in the Akkadian language as it was spoken and written by Assyrian scribes, and then it has been translated into English, so that we who read English do not have to struggle with Assyrian Akkadian and how it made small changes in Hebrew names.
Your comment misspells his name in Akkadian: the b and the h should trade places. The inscription names the various kings who fought in the battle, and even when his name and kingdom are written according to an Assyrian accent, it is not hard to figure out who they meant. There are period artifacts which refer to Kedor-laomer, Jacob, Joseph, Artaxerxes, Xerxes, Essarhaddon, and several others. Were these overlooked on purpose or were you not aware of them?
Daniel, the Biblical Archaeology Society BAS has already graciously provided free and open access to this article on this web page. Further, web address can serve as a link to this page so that others may access it, just as you have done. Because I am an author, not the editor, publisher, or distributor, I am not the person from whom to request any other form of access.
Janet Bowman. Reply to David comment 36 above : Of course, David, and thank you for pointing out this limit. My article on external verification of these 50 people in the Bible makes no attempt to deal with miraculous events. It neither claims that supernatural events occurred nor disputes such claims. I have only dealt with matches between biblical data and evidences for non-supernatural phenomena, namely, the existence of persons to whom the Bible refers. Best, Lawrence Mykytiuk. This does not, however, prove that the miraculous claims that are in the Bible are true.
If you in anyway think this proves that the entire Bible is historically accurate then you have committed a fallacy of composition. Actually, there is plenty of ancient evidence for King Josiah of Judah in several ancient books by various authors—at least six of them, who wrote at various times and in various situations. These days, people and I am not including you among them too easily discount ancient, historical references that all mention the same person or event, even though they were written by different authors at different times—and even though the various ancient writers were much, much closer to the ancient times they referred to than we are.
The agreement of different sources adds strength to the historical case that can be made. The Dead Sea Scrolls suddenly made it possible to compare biblical texts from the period around B. Although some differences crept in, there is also amazing continuity and accuracy. The labor of the scribes who copied and faithfully preserved the biblical texts for so many generations, as well as the hard work of modern Bible scholars, deserves better treatment than to be ignored. Reply to Nancy comment 30 above : Thank you for asking, Nancy.
There is no known inscription from outside the Bible that verifies the existence of Josiah, king of Judah. Sometimes biblical names can be reversed, for example, Ahaz-yahu and Yeho-ahaz are essentially the same name. Some readers, through no fault of their own, got the first news which turned out to be mistaken , but not the second news story about its being a forgery. See Exodus Because Josiah was not the only reform-minded king of Judah Hezekiah being an earlier reformer-king , the picture is not totally crystal clear, but this indirect evidence for a royal reformer in the late s B.
Inscriptions from about to B. I thought there was evidence for King Josiah. Several officials from his reign are listed but he is not? David, it is good to be cautious in evaluating evidence, and not to overstate the case. Do use your best judgment without denying the existing evidence its due implications.
Note that the dynasty of Omri began ca. On the phrase pattern in general, see Gary A. An Egyptian place-name in an inscription of Pharaoh Shoshenq I r. Mesha, king of Moab, had his victory stele written in Moabite sometime between and B. If one may elucidate the vividness of social memory after 70 to years among the ancient Hebrews by parallels in U.
Neither these events nor the names of the heroes associated with them are likely to be forgotten or subject to serious confusion anytime soon. In the opinion of many scholars, the author was most likely Hazael r. This particular Titan, Prometheus by name, created mankind, stole fire from the gods, and gave it to humankind, for which he met with a most unfortunate punishment. This mythological tale is entirely a Greek invention, carried on by Romans.
In these books, we find a very different kind of literature, one that purports to give a matter-of-fact history of the all-too-human, mundane or dramatic affairs of family, priesthood, warfare, and state, even when laced with divine interventions. Several of the leading characters were mentioned by name in historical writings of other nations and cultures that refer to the Iron Age, with no Titans or primeval persons thrown in. Each locality had its own Baal, and the local Baal was often given a name denoting his being attached to a specific locality. Nu , 6 The names of these local Baals later came to be transferred through a figure of speech metonymy to the localities themselves, as, for example, Baal-hermon, Baal-hazor, Baal-zephon, Bamoth-baal.
However, although there were many local Baals, officially, among the Canaanites, it was understood that there was actually just one god Baal. Reply to Lisa comment 25 above : Thank you for your very interesting comment. Some possibilities of this kind regarding the Joseph of the book of Genesis chapters 37 to 50 are associated with British Egyptologist David Rohl.
His identification of Joseph is partly based on his major revision of Egyptian chronology, which has generally not been accepted by mainstream scholars. It is regarding such criteria and their application to inscriptions that I have done academic work. If an inscription is known to be authentic—that is, excavated, not sold on the antiquities market—and if it happens to contain enough data in the inscribed piece and in its immediate surroundings in the excavation, then one might be able make a clear, strong identification of someone who is mentioned in the Bible.
If such evidence were to lead to a clear, strong identification the biblical Joseph, to whom the book of Genesis refers, that would be an earthshaking discovery indeed. We would most likely have heard about it from many experts by now. What about cartouches or ring seals that have been found that apparently belonged to joseph during his days as administrator in Egypt?
Even for me Chris , this is a bit on the nerdy side. Now he finds himself taking part of an impossible search. In order to protect everyone he cares about, he must figure out who to trust. Trust picks up where Secrets leaves off, tossing N In my mind, I could see all the different possibilities of what was about to happen, and there was only one scenario where Chad wouldn't get hurt. Trust picks up where Secrets leaves off, tossing Nicholas and Elle back in to danger. The writing is clearer perhaps due to not having to reestablish the world and there is a nice build of anticipation about the search.
Readers who liked following Nicholas in Secrets will enjoy Trust even more. Like Secrets, Trust was an entertaining read, fast-paced and full of mystery that keeps readers turning the page. Nicholas's story doesn't seem over yet, and readers will be curious to see what his next challenge will be. There's nothing absolutely amazing about this series, but it keeps me reading. The characters are well-developed, I'm invested in what happens to them.
The author writes and the story moves at a good pace; there's no filler, no extra stuff just to fill pages. Thank goodness for that. I definitely want to know how it finishes, but probably not a story I would reread. Sono un disastro, nessuno dovrebbe concedermi la sua fiducia. Si tratta, comunque, di una serie young adult, paranormale, dove non si parla do creature magiche, o meglio, non le classiche a cui siamo abituati, e un protagonista leale, coraggioso, e veramente in gamba… il vero eroe.
Il consiglio inizia ad avere le sue mire sul ragazzo che si trova diviso tra due fuochi. Contano anche il modo di fare e la propria educazione. Il suo obiettivo primario resta quello di proteggere Ella, la ragazza che ama, a qualunque cosa. Il particolare da non dimenticare? Buona lettura guys! Mar 19, Julie Ramsey rated it liked it. Ok The book is good. Good characters. Good plot but the story was predictable. The book is a nice read though. Shelves: young-adult , scify. Previously Nicholas Keller and his Aunt Cora had been on the run, hiding their identifies after his parents were killed in an earthquake.
But, after settling in Winsor where Nicholas has found friendship and the love of Elle Canan, they have decided to stay, keeping a sharp outlook for any attack from Seekers, a sinister force that seeks power. In this sequel Nicholas, Cora and his protectors Genevieve Pereira "Trust" by Tim Mettey is a fantasy story with a dash of mystery and romance blended in.
In this sequel Nicholas, Cora and his protectors Genevieve Pereira and Riley Moore have to unravel the mystery of the 7, of which four are Thusians. Can they outwit and find the 4th before the Seekers? Can Nicholas continue to hide his identity from Elle and his friends? Will Nicholas and Elle's love and loyalty endure the interference of others? These are only some of the questions to be resolved in the latest installment of this imaginative and riveting series.
The plot is well-written, flowing smoothly and naturally as Nicholas and his protectors face one challenge after another in their struggle not only against the Seekers, but against a Thusian Council who's trying to hinder their search. In this story the personalities of the characters stay true to their natures but develop more complexity. Nicholas's fiery temperament emerges when he's stressed, but when called to action tends to be astute and remarkably calm. He has a humble and loving nature, but is quick to anger when Elle's feelings are at stake.
Elle Canan, usually cheerful and good-natured is jealous and rebellious when her relationship with Nicholas is involved. As the romance between the pair heats up, I found it a little overpowering at times. Cora, Nicholas's aunt is protective and very perceptive except when dealing with her romantic feelings. Genevieve masks a loving, caring, self-sacrificing spirit behind a stubborn, callous and arrogant wilfulness.
Riley, teacher and assistant coach appears intelligent and caring, but is very secretive. Even the minor characters are notable including; brave and tolerant Coach Miller, sharp-tongued James Caldwell, the insecure bully Oliver Rails, and Bryce Adams who masks his true nature behind good-natured friendliness. Blended into this fascinating page turner that keeps the reader engrossed from the first page to the last are messages about not judging people, about forgiveness, redemption and the healing power of love. I thoroughly enjoyed "Trust" and look forward to reading the next book in this series.
Reviewed for Readers Favorite. We originally met Nicholas in the first book of this series, Secrets, and this book continues the story. The secrets are now out in the open, or at least some of them and now it is a matter of who to trust and what to do to stay alive and continue life.
Nicholas has started a relationship and for the first time in his life since his parents death, he and his Aunt are not moving at the end of the school year, they are staying put and continuing with life. Now they ha Reviewed for Readers Favorite. Now they have to Trust that they made the correct decision and to learn more about the heritage that Nicholas just learned about.
Tim Mettey takes the second book of the Hero Chronicles and doesn't miss a beat. This book continues the story and yet still keeps the excitement and the thrill, the reality and the story that entranced readers in the first book. Trust follows secrets, just as in life once you learn the secrets now you need to trust what you feel and go with your heart. This book follows in such a normal and life-like pattern that, even more than the first book, the reader is pulled into the story. You can actually feel as if you are part of the story and you want to help Nicholas and to understand what is going on as much as he does.
It is a wonderful story that will encourage and inspire the young adult and teen reader, and even restore faith in the youth of the day to the older reader. Tim Mettey may be a newer author, in that Secrets and trust are his first books, but he has a style and ability that will have you wanting more from him as soon as you finish this book. In fact, I was surprised to find that the author was male, in so much as I find that it is harder to find a male author that can connect so directly with the reader. The four Books of the Chronicler together form a sweeping history in the form of a theological reflection on the people of God from the time of Adam through the United Kingdom of Israel and the Babylonian Exile to the period of the Restoration of Judah, with the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem and the reaffirmation of the Law of Moses.
The basic message of Chronicles is about God himself who is a just judge but never abandons his chosen people. The consistent theme of covenant, fall, judgement, and redemption that is evident in Genesis persists throughout Chronicles. First Chronicles serves as an excellent introduction to these four Books written circa BC after the Babylonian Exile. This is to show that the people of Israel who have returned from exile have the same heritage as Adam and Abraham and thus are assured of the promise of God's salvation in return for their fidelity to their Covenant with God through the Law of Moses.
First Chronicles then presents an idealized reign of King David, the hero of his people. David was successful because of his continuous communion, repentance, and gratitude to God his Creator. Second Chronicles records the reign of Solomon and the building of the Temple. The book also records the beginning of the Divided Kingdom under his son Rehoboam.
Jerusalem was in the north of Judah, close to the border of Israel. Several kings broke covenant with the Lord by worshipping foreign gods and marrying foreign wives, and this led to the collapse of the Divided Kingdom in BC and the ten lost Northern tribes of Israel, followed by the destruction of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem and the Babylonian Exile in BC. King Jehoshaphat was King of Judah for twenty-five years circa BC and served the Lord, but in his attempt to forge alliances with the Kings of Israel, he went astray.
The Prayer of Jehoshaphat led to God's miraculous intervention in a war and is noteworthy for calling Abraham the "friend of God" in 2 Chronicles - "Are You not our God, who drove out the inhabitants of this land before Your people Israel, and gave it to the descendants of Abraham Your friend forever? The prophet Isaiah prayed with King Hezekiah in his deliberations. The book ends with the deportation of the people of Judah and Jerusalem to Babylon and the decree of King Cyrus of Persia to allow the Israelites to return to Jerusalem in Judah.
The prophet Jeremiah is recorded four times in Chapters of Second Chronicles. Of historical note, Charlemagne AD echoed King Josiah 2 Chronicles when he read aloud to his court at Aachen the Laws of the Church in his establishment of Christianity as the guiding principle of his Carolingian Empire. The passage of Second Chronicles is repeated in Ezra to indicate continuity.
The central role of worship in the lives of God's people is conveyed in dedication to the Temple of Jerusalem as the House of the Lord, and to the Law of Moses. King James I commissioned a group of Biblical scholars in to establish an authoritative translation of the Bible from the ancient languages and other translations at the time, and the work was completed in